W. de Vries, J. Kros, M.A. Dolman, Th.V. Vellinga, H.C. de Boer, A.L. Gerritsen, M.P.W. Sonneveld, J. Bouma
Release Date: 

Science of the Total Environment 536: 432–442

The study evaluates the environmental performance of selected dairy farms in the Netherlands. Closing internal nutrient cycles (INC) significantly reduces dairy farm energy use, INC farming reduces the global warming, acidification, and eutrophication potential; nitrogen losses to air and water decrease on average by 5 to 10%.